Most Important Questions of D.Pharma 2nd Year

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The specific questions considered most important for D.Pharma (Diploma in Pharmacy) 2nd Year can vary depending on the curriculum and course structure of the institution you are attending. However, I can provide you with a list of general topics and questions that are commonly covered in the Second Year of a D.Pharma Program.

Please note that these are general areas of study and the actual questions may vary:

PHARMACOLOGY

These are following Important question of Pharmacology

  1. Define Pharmacology and Its Scope.
  2. Various routes of drug administration – advantages and disadvantages
  3. Drug absorption, Distribution, Metabolisms or Biotransformation, Excretion of drugs, routes of drug excretion with definition, types and Factors.
  4. Definition- Cholinergic drugs and Anti-Cholinergic drugs, Adrenergic drugs and Anti-adrenergic drugs, NSAIDs.
  5. Definition, classification, pharmacological actions, dose, indications and contraindications of Miotics, Mydriatics, Glaucoma.
  6. Definition, classification, pharmacological actions, dose, indications, and contraindications of Local anaesthetics and General anaesthetics, Hypnotics and sedatives.
  7. Definition, classification, pharmacological actions, dose, indications, and contraindications of Bronchodilators, Expectorants, Anti-tussive agents and Mucolytic agents.
  8. Definition, classification, pharmacological actions, dose, indications, and contraindications of Diuretics and Anti-Diuretics.
  9. Physiological role of Histamine, 5 HT and Prostaglandins.
  10. Definition Biological agents, types, and indications of biological agents with examples.
  11. Chemotherapeutic Agents: Introduction, Classification, dose, indication and contraindications of drugs belonging to following classes: Penicillins, Tetracyclines, Sulphonamides, Anti-tubercular drugs, Anti-fungal drugs, Anti-neoplastic agents and Anti-malarial agents.
  12. Physiological and pathological role and clinical uses of: Thyroid hormones and Anti-thyroid drugs, Calcitonin, Vitamin D, Insulin, Oral hypoglycemic agents, Estrogen, Progesterone, Oxytocin, Corticosteroids.

COMMUNITY PHARMACY AND MANAGEMENT

These are following Important question of Community Pharmacy and Management.

  1. Define Community Pharmacy.
  2. International and Indian scenarios [One Question]
  3. Professional responsibilities of community pharmacists
  4. Introduction to the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice and SOPs.
  5. Define Prescription and its parts of prescriptions.
  6. Define Prescription handling.
  7. Brief instructions on medication usage.
  8. Dispensing process, Good Dispensing Practices, dispensing errors and strategies to minimize them.
  9. Define Communication skills and its types of communication skills.
  10. Verbal communication (one-to-one, over the telephone) and Non Verbal Communication.
  11. Define Patient counselling and counselling process, and closing the counselling session.
  12. Define Patient Package Inserts and importance and benefits, Scenarios of PPI use in India and other countries.
  13. Define Patient Information leaflets.
  14. Definition of Medication Adherence, factors influencing non- adherence, strategies to overcome non-adherence.
  15. Definition of OTC Medication, and role of Pharmacists in OTC medication dispensing.
  16. Health Screening Services in Community Pharmacy and its scope.
  17. What are minor ailments.
  18. Advice for self-care in conditions such as – Pain management, Cough, Cold, Diarrhea, Constipation, Vomiting, Fever, Sore throat, Skin disorders.
  19. Site selection requirements
  20. SOP of Pharmacy Management

BIOCHEMISTRY & CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

These are following Important question of Biochemistry and Clinical Pathology.

  1. Introduction to biochemistry and Its Scope.
  2. Cell and its biochemical organization
  3. Define carbohydrates, classification with examples, chemical properties.
    • Monosaccharides – Structure of glucose, fructose, and galactose
    • Disaccharides – structure of maltose, lactose, and sucrose
    • Polysaccharides – chemical nature of starch and glycogen
  4. Qualitative tests and biological role of carbohydrates.
  5. Definition, classification of proteins based on composition and solubility with examples
  6. Definition, classification of amino acids based on chemical nature and nutritional requirements with examples
  7. Structure of proteins (four levels of organization of protein structure)
  8. Qualitative tests and biological role of proteins and amino acids
  9. Diseases related to malnutrition of proteins.
  10. Definition, classification with examples.
  11. Qualitative tests and functions of lipids
  12. Structure of DNA (Watson and Crick model), RNA and their functions.
  13. Define Enzymes and Factors affecting enzyme activity.
  14. Mechanism of action of enzymes, Enzyme inhibitors
  15. Metabolism of Carbohydrates: Glycolysis, TCA cycle and glycogen metabolism.
  16. Minerals: Types, Functions, Deficiency diseases, recommended dietary requirements.
  17. Distribution, functions of water in the body
  18. Dehydration, causes of dehydration and oral rehydration therapy.
  19. Introduction to Biotechnology
  20. Functions of kidney and routinely performed tests to assess the functions of kidney.
  21. Functions of liver and routinely performed tests to assess the functions of liver.
  22. Lipid profile tests

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PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS

These are following Important question of Pharmacotherapeutics.

  1. Define Pharmacotherapeutics and its scope, and objectives.
  2. Rational use of Medicines and Evidence Based Medicine, Essential Medicines List and Standard Treatment Guidelines.
  3. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Angina and Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, CHF.
  4. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Asthma and COPD.
  5. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Thyroid disorders – Hypo and Hyperthyroidism
  6. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
  7. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Gastro Intestinal Disorders [All Disease]
  8. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Iron deficiency anaemia and Iron deficiency anaemia.
  9. Definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of the diseases associated with: Rheumatoid arthritis and Osteoarthritis.
  10. Anti-microbial Resistance
  11. Dermatology All Disease
  12. Women’s Health – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Dysmenorrhea, Premenstrual Syndrome.

HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACY

These are following Important question of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy.

  1. Definition of Hospital Pharmacy its Scope.
  2. National and international scenario
  3. Organisational structure
  4. Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) in hospital
  5. Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee – Objectives, Composition, and functions.
  6. Hospital Formulary – Definition, procedure for development and use of hospital formulary.
  7. Role of Pharmacist in preventing Antimicrobial Resistance.
  8. Define High Risk drugs, Emergency drugs, Schedule H1 drugs, NDPS drugs, reserved antibiotics.
  9. Inventory control techniques
  10. Inventory Management of Central Drug Store – Storage conditions, Methods of storage, Distribution, Maintaining Cold Chain, Devices used for cold storage (Refrigerator, ILR, Walk-in-Cold rooms)
  11. FEFO, FIFO methods
  12. Expiry drug removal and handling, and disposal. Disposal of Narcotics, cytotoxic drugs.
  13. Distribution of drugs to ICCU/ICU/NICU/Emergency wards.
  14. Drug distribution (in- patients and out – patients) – Definition, advantages and disadvantages of individual prescription order method, Floor Stock Method, Unit Dose Drug Distribution Method, Drug Basket Method.
  15. Compounding in Hospitals. Bulk compounding, IV admixture services and incompatibilities, Total parenteral nutrition.
  16. Radio Pharmaceuticals – Storage, dispensing and disposal of radiopharmaceuticals.
  17. Application of computers in Hospital Pharmacy Practice
  18. Electronic health records and Softwares used in hospital pharmacy.
  19. Define Clinical Pharmacy and Its Scope.
  20. Poisoning: Types of poisoning: Clinical manifestations and Antidotes
  21. Overview of Pharmacovigilance.
  22. Drug Interactions: Definition, types, clinical significance of drug interactions.

PHARMACY LAW AND ETHICS

These are following Important question of Pharmacy Law and Ethics.

  1. Pharmacy Act-1948 and Rules: Objectives, Definitions, Pharmacy Council of India; its constitution and functions, Education Regulations, State and Joint state pharmacy councils, Registration of Pharmacists, Offences and Penalties.
  2. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945: Objectives, Definitions, Legal definitions of schedules to the Act and Rules.
  3. Classes of drugs and cosmetics prohibited from import
  4. Study of schedule C and C1, G, H, H1, K, P, M, N, and X.
  5. Wholesale, Retail sale and Restricted license.
  6. Drugs Prohibited for manufacture and sale in India
  7. Administration of the Act and Rules – Drugs Technical Advisory Board, Central Drugs Laboratory, Drugs Consultative Committee, Government analysts, licensing authorities, controlling authorities, Drug Inspectors.
  8. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 and Rules: Offences and Penalties.
  9. Drugs and Magic Remedies Act 1954: Classes of Exempted advertisements, Offences and Penalties.
  10. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act-1960: Full Chapter
  11. Poisons Act-1919: definition, possession, possession for sales and sale of any poison, import of poisons.
  12. National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM)
  13. Drugs Price Control Order (DPCO) – 2013
  14. Pharmaceutical Policy 2002
  15. Central Drugs Standards Control Organization
  16. Blood bank – basic requirements and functions
  17. Introduction to the Consumer Protection Act
  18. Introduction to the Disaster Management Act
  19. Medical Devices – Categorization, basic aspects related to manufacture and sale

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