Market preparations of various dosage forms of Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathic (Classical and Proprietary), indications, and their labelling requirements

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Ayurvedic System

The Ayurvedic system is a traditional system of medicine that originated in India over 5,000 years ago. It is based on a holistic approach to health and well-being and seeks to balance the mind, body, and spirit to promote optimal health.

Ayurveda views each person as a unique individual with a specific constitution or “dosha.” There are three primary doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Each dosha represents different qualities and characteristics, and an individual’s dosha determines their physical, mental, and emotional tendencies.

The Ayurvedic system emphasizes the importance of maintaining balance within the body to prevent illness and promote overall well-being. It believes that imbalances or disruptions in the doshas can lead to various health issues. Ayurvedic practitioners use a combination of therapies, including herbal remedies, dietary changes, detoxification practices, massage, meditation, and yoga to restore balance and promote health.

The Ayurvedic system also focuses on preventive healthcare and encourages individuals to adopt healthy lifestyle practices according to their dosha type. These practices may include following a specific diet, engaging in regular exercise, practicing stress management techniques, and maintaining a daily routine that aligns with the body’s natural rhythms.

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It’s important to note that while Ayurveda has a long history and is widely practiced in India, it is considered an alternative or complementary medicine system in many parts of the world. As with any healthcare approach, it’s advisable to consult with trained and qualified Ayurvedic practitioners or healthcare professionals before incorporating Ayurvedic practices into your life.

Market preparations of various dosage forms of Ayurvedic

Ayurvedic medicines are prepared in various dosage forms to cater to different patient needs and preferences. These dosage forms are derived from traditional Ayurvedic texts and practices, and they undergo specific preparation methods to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Here are some commonly used dosage forms of Ayurvedic medicines:

  1. Churna (Powders): Churna refers to powdered herbal formulations. Ayurvedic herbs and minerals are finely ground and mixed to create specific formulas. Churna can be taken orally with water or honey.
  2. Vati (Tablets): Vati are Ayurvedic tablets made by compressing powdered herbs and minerals into tablet form. Vati may contain a single herb or a combination of herbs. They are convenient to use and often used for various health conditions.
  3. Kashaya (Decoctions): Kashaya is a liquid dosage form made by boiling herbs in water and reducing it to a concentrated decoction. Kashaya is typically consumed orally and is known for its potent medicinal properties.
  4. Avaleha/Leha (Herbal Jams): Avaleha, also known as leha or herbal jams, are prepared by cooking herbs with jaggery, honey, ghee (clarified butter), and other ingredients. Avaleha is a semi-solid formulation that is sweet and palatable.
  5. Arishta (Herbal Fermented Liquids): Arishta is a fermented liquid preparation made by fermenting herbs, water, and sugar or jaggery. It is allowed to undergo a natural fermentation process, resulting in an alcoholic preparation. Arishta is commonly used for various ailments.
  6. Asava (Herbal Infusions): Asava is similar to arishta but is non-alcoholic. It is prepared by fermenting herbs, water, and honey or sugar. Asava is known for its rejuvenating and therapeutic properties.
  7. Ghrita (Medicated Ghee): Ghrita refers to medicated ghee, which is clarified butter infused with various herbs. Ghrita is widely used in Ayurvedic formulations due to its ability to carry medicinal properties deep into the tissues of the body.
  8. Taila (Medicated Oils): Taila denotes medicated oils used for external application or internal consumption. These oils are prepared by processing herbs with a base oil, such as sesame oil or coconut oil. Taila is widely used in Ayurvedic massage therapies and treatments.
  9. Choorna (Herbal Dusting Powders): Choorna refers to herbal dusting powders used for external applications. These powders are prepared by grinding specific herbs into a fine powder and are often used to promote wound healing and manage skin conditions.
  10. Lepa (Herbal Paste): Lepa is a herbal paste made by grinding herbs into a fine powder and mixing it with water, oils, or other liquids. Lepa is applied externally as a poultice or paste for various skin conditions.

These are just a few examples of the dosage forms used in Ayurvedic medicine. It’s important to note that the preparation methods and ingredients may vary based on specific Ayurvedic traditions and formulations. It’s always recommended to consult a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner or physician for appropriate usage and dosage instructions.


Unani System

The Unani system, also known as Yunani medicine, is a traditional system of medicine that originated in ancient Greece and was later developed and refined by Arab, Persian, and Indian scholars. Unani medicine is based on the principles of Hippocrates, Galen, and other Greek philosophers, as well as the teachings of Islamic scholars such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna).

The word “Unani” comes from the Arabic word “Unan,” which means Greece. Unani medicine views the human body as a complex entity that consists of various interconnected elements, including the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) and the six essential factors (air, water, food, sleep, exercise, and excretion). It emphasizes the balance of these elements for maintaining good health.

According to Unani philosophy, diseases occur when there is an imbalance or obstruction in the natural flow of the humors within the body. The primary goal of Unani medicine is to restore this balance through various methods, including diet and lifestyle modifications, herbal remedies, physical therapies, and surgery if necessary.

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Unani physicians diagnose illnesses by analyzing the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and bodily constitution. They may also use techniques like pulse diagnosis and urine analysis. Treatment plans are personalized according to the individual’s specific condition and may involve the use of herbal medicines, dietary recommendations, detoxification therapies, and exercises.

Unani medicine has been widely practiced in many parts of the world, particularly in South Asia, the Middle East, and certain parts of Europe. It is known for its holistic approach and its emphasis on promoting natural healing processes. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in Unani medicine and its integration with modern healthcare systems, as it offers an alternative or complementary approach to conventional medicine.

Market preparations of various dosage forms of Unani

Unani medicine is a traditional system of medicine that originated in ancient Greece and was later developed and popularized in the Islamic world. It is based on the principles of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates and the teachings of the Islamic scholar-physician Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Unani medicine utilizes various dosage forms to deliver therapeutic agents. Here are some common preparations used in Unani medicine:

  • Majoon (Electuary): Majoon is a type of semi-solid preparation in which powdered drugs are mixed with honey, ghee (clarified butter), or sugar syrup to form a paste-like consistency. Majoon is commonly used for respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders.
  • Qurs (Pills): Qurs are small pills made by grinding herbs and medicinal substances into a fine powder and then mixing them with a suitable binder, such as gum acacia or honey. The mixture is rolled into small pills or tablets. Qurs are often used for the treatment of various ailments, including gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular conditions, and respiratory problems.
  • Sharbat (Syrup): Sharbat is a sweetened and flavored liquid preparation made by dissolving medicinal substances, such as herbs or flower extracts, in sugar syrup or honey. Sharbat is commonly used as a cooling and refreshing drink, as well as for treating digestive disorders and improving general health.
  • Marham (Ointment): Marham is a topical ointment or cream used for external application. It is prepared by combining medicinal ingredients with a suitable base, such as petroleum jelly or beeswax. Marham is commonly used for skin conditions, muscular pain, and joint ailments.
  • Roghan (Oil): Roghan refers to oils extracted from various medicinal plants or animals. These oils are used for external application, massage, or as nasal drops. Roghan is commonly used in the treatment of joint pain, muscle sprains, hair-related problems, and as a general body tonic.
  • Itrifal (Jam): Itrifal is a type of herbal jam made by cooking medicinal herbs with sugar or honey. It has a semi-solid consistency and is used primarily for digestive disorders and respiratory conditions.
  • Hab (Powder): Hab is a powdered form of medicinal substances used in Unani medicine. It is made by grinding herbs and minerals into a fine powder. Hab is usually taken orally, either by mixing with water or honey. It is commonly used for respiratory problems, digestive disorders, and general wellness.

It is important to note that the preparation and usage of Unani medicines should be done under the guidance of a qualified Unani practitioner or physician. Dosage and administration may vary depending on the specific condition and individual patient needs.

Siddha System

The Siddha system is a traditional system of medicine that originated in ancient India. It is one of the oldest medical systems in the world and has its roots in the ancient Tamil civilization. The word “Siddha” means “perfection” or “attainment” in Sanskrit.

The Siddha system is based on the principles of Siddha medicine, which views the human body as a microcosm of the universe and believes that the body is composed of five elements: earth, water, fire, air, and ether. According to Siddha philosophy, health is achieved when there is a balance among these elements, and disease occurs when there is an imbalance.

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In Siddha medicine, diseases are classified into 4448 types based on their causes and symptoms. The diagnosis is made through a detailed examination of the patient’s pulse, urine, and other clinical signs. The treatment approach involves restoring the balance of the elements through the use of herbs, minerals, animal products, and other natural substances. Siddha physicians also emphasize the importance of proper diet and lifestyle habits to maintain health.

The Siddha system has its own pharmacopoeia, which consists of a wide range of medicinal preparations derived from plants, minerals, and animal products. These preparations are formulated based on the principles of Siddha medicine and are believed to have therapeutic effects on various diseases.

Market preparations of various dosage forms of Siddha

Siddha medicine is a traditional system of medicine that originated in ancient India. It focuses on the holistic approach to healing and uses various dosage forms for administering medicines. These dosage forms are prepared using natural ingredients such as herbs, minerals, and animal products. While I can provide you with a general overview of the preparations of various dosage forms in Siddha medicine, it’s important to note that specific formulations and preparations may vary based on the practitioner and the intended use.

  1. Chooranam (Powder): Chooranam is a common dosage form in Siddha medicine. It involves grinding herbs, minerals, and other ingredients into a fine powder. These powders are usually taken orally, either directly or mixed with other substances like honey or ghee.
  2. Kashayam (Decoction): Kashayam is prepared by boiling herbs and other medicinal substances in water until the active constituents are extracted. The resulting liquid is strained and consumed orally. Kashayams are often used to treat various ailments and are available in pre-packaged forms or can be prepared fresh by practitioners.
  3. Lehyam (Electuary): Lehyam is a semi-solid preparation that involves mixing powdered herbs with jaggery or honey to form a paste-like consistency. It is commonly used to improve digestion and enhance the absorption of herbal ingredients. Lehyams are consumed orally in small quantities.
  4. Mathirai (Pills/Tablets): Mathirai refers to the pills or tablets prepared in Siddha medicine. The powdered ingredients are mixed with suitable binders, such as herbal juices or decoctions, and shaped into small tablets. These tablets are taken orally and are convenient for administration.
  5. Kuzhambu (Oil/Ointment): Kuzhambu is an oil or ointment-based dosage form in Siddha medicine. It involves blending herbal extracts with oils or ghee to create a medicated formulation. Kuzhambu is typically applied topically on the affected area or used for therapeutic massages.
  6. Parpam (Calx): Parpam is a unique dosage form in Siddha medicine that involves the calcination of minerals and metals. The raw materials are purified and subjected to specific heating processes to obtain a fine powdered form. Parpam is usually mixed with other ingredients and taken orally.
  7. Chenduram (Ash): Chenduram refers to the ash or calcined form of certain minerals and herbs. It involves burning the raw material and collecting the ash, which is further processed and mixed with other ingredients to form a therapeutic powder. Chenduram is consumed orally.
  8. Legiyam (Confection): Legiyam is a sweet confectionary-like preparation in Siddha medicine. It involves cooking herbs, ghee, and jaggery together to form a sticky paste. Legiyam is consumed in small amounts and is often used to improve digestion and boost immunity.

It’s worth mentioning that these are just a few examples of dosage forms used in Siddha medicine. There may be additional preparations and formulations based on specific remedies and practices within the Siddha tradition.


Homeopathic System

Homeopathy is a form of alternative medicine that was developed in the late 18th century by Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician. Homeopathy is based on the principle of “like cures like,” which means that a substance that can cause symptoms in a healthy person can be used to treat similar symptoms in a sick person.

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In many countries, including the United States and European countries, homeopathic remedies are sold as over-the-counter products and regulated as dietary supplements. However, they are not considered as valid treatments for specific medical conditions by mainstream medical organizations and regulatory authorities. In fact, many medical professionals and scientific organizations have issued statements cautioning against the use of homeopathy as a substitute for evidence-based medicine.

Market preparations of various dosage forms of Homeopathic

Homeopathic medicines are prepared in various dosage forms to cater to the diverse needs of patients. The preparation of homeopathic remedies involves a unique process of dilution and succussion (vigorous shaking) to enhance the medicinal properties. Here are some of the commonly used dosage forms in homeopathy:

  1. Liquid Dilutions: These are the most frequently used dosage forms in homeopathy. Liquid dilutions are prepared by diluting the original substance (plant, mineral, or animal) with water or alcohol. The dilution process involves sequential dilutions, typically in ratios of 1:10 or 1:100, followed by succussion. The final product is a highly diluted liquid preparation.
  2. Tablets and Pellets: Homeopathic tablets and pellets are made by impregnating sucrose or lactose pellets with the liquid dilution or mother tincture. The liquid is absorbed into the pellets, and they are then dried. These tablets or pellets are convenient to use and can be easily administered orally.
  3. Tinctures: Tinctures are alcoholic extracts of medicinal substances. In homeopathy, tinctures are prepared by macerating the source material (such as plants) in a mixture of alcohol and water. The resulting solution is then filtered and used as a concentrated extract.
  4. Ointments and Creams: Homeopathic ointments and creams are topical preparations used for skin conditions and external applications. These preparations are usually made by incorporating homeopathic dilutions or tinctures into a base cream or ointment.
  5. Globules: Globules are small sugar or lactose-based pellets used in homeopathy. They are often used as carriers for liquid dilutions. Globules can be easily dispensed and dissolved in the mouth.
  6. Nasal Sprays: Nasal sprays are used for delivering homeopathic remedies directly to the nasal passages. These sprays usually contain highly diluted substances and are administered by spraying into the nostrils.
  7. Eye Drops: Homeopathic eye drops are formulated for ocular conditions and are prepared by diluting the active ingredients in sterile saline solutions. They are used for various eye-related issues, such as conjunctivitis and dryness.

It’s important to note that homeopathic preparations are highly diluted, following the principles of “potentization.” The level of dilution determines the potency of the remedy. Homeopathic practitioners select the appropriate potency based on the individual’s symptoms and the principles of homeopathic prescribing.

Their labelling Requirements

Ayurdeva, Unani, Sidda and Homeopathic products are regulated differently in various countries, so the specific labeling requirements may vary depending on the jurisdiction. However, I can provide you with general information on the typical labeling requirements for homeopathic products. Please note that this information may not be up to date with the most recent regulations, and it’s always best to consult the specific regulations in your country or region.

  1. Product Name: The label should clearly state the name of the product, which may include the common or generic name of the ingredients used.
  2. Ingredients: Products usually contain highly diluted substances, and the label should list all the active and inactive ingredients used in the product. The ingredients are typically listed by their Latin names and their dilution or potency.
  3. Potency: Products are prepared using a process of potentization, which involves dilution and succussion (vigorous shaking). The label should indicate the potency of the active ingredients.
  4. Dosage Form: The label should clearly state the dosage form of the product, such as tablets, liquid, ointment, or pellets.
  5. Directions for Use: The label should provide instructions on how to use the product, including the recommended dosage, frequency of use, and any specific administration instructions.
  6. Warnings and Precautions: Labels for Products often include specific warnings and precautions, such as age restrictions, contraindications, and potential adverse reactions. These warnings aim to ensure safe usage of the product.
  7. Storage Instructions: The label should provide guidance on how to store the product properly, including temperature recommendations and any specific storage conditions.
  8. Manufacturer Information: The label should clearly identify the manufacturer or distributor of the Product. This information may include the company’s name, address, contact information, and/or a website.
  9. Expiry Date: Products typically have an expiration date, which indicates the period during which the product is considered to be safe and effective. The label should display this date.
  10. Additional Statements: Depending on the jurisdiction, there may be additional labeling requirements, such as disclaimers, statements regarding the product’s intended use, or references to regulatory bodies.

It’s essential to familiarize yourself with the specific labeling regulations of your country or region to ensure compliance with the applicable requirements.

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